Diabetics are particularly susceptible to ocular pathology associated with the disease process itself. As such, patients with diabetes must ensure they are getting their eyes dilated once a year, at minimum.
Diabetes effects the blood vessels in the body and eye. This can lead to bleeding and swelling inside of the eye, effecting the inner layer called the retina. Patients may be asymptomatic, or may notice blurred vision or visual distortions. In advanced cases, a total loss of vision may be experienced, as severe bleeding and retinal detachments may occur.
Early stages are monitored at regular intervals, and the patient is encouraged to work on the control of their blood sugars with their primary care doctor or endocrinologist. In addition, a healthy diet and physical activity are also encouraged.
More advanced cases require a referral to an ophthalmologist for injections, laser therapy or surgery.